After the October Revolution in Russia, the Bolsheviks gained control of the Russian government and sought peace with Germany. An armistice was concluded with Germany on December 15, and peace negotiations began on December 23 at Brest-Litovsk in the Ukraine (now Brest, Belarus). Frustrated by German demands for Russia to cede territory, on February 10, 1918, the Bolsheviks withdrew from peace negotiations and also demobilized their armies. The Central Powers repudiated the armistice and made significant advances in two weeks, after which the Bolsheviks found themselves compelled to sign the treaty. The treaty was quite harsh on Russia, obligating Russia to cede a large amount of territory, including Finland, Esthonia, Livonia, Courland, Lithuania, Russian Poland, Ukraine, Erdehan, Kars, and Batum. In November 1918, Germany repudiated the treaty as a condition of the armistice with Germany, and Russia annulled the treaty.